Microtubules constitute one of the major components of the cytoskeleton, a framework important for organizing many critical cellular processes such as cell shape, cellular polarity, cell motility, signal transduction, cell division, intracellular transport and muscle contraction. Microtubules are hollow cylindrical protein fibers composed of alternating α- and β-tubulins stacked together by non-covalent bond interactions and contain 13 parallel α- and β-tubulin heterodimers in cross-section. Microtubules are integral components of mitotic spindles and they are intimately involved in cell proliferation. The dynamic microtubules comprising the mitotic spindles are targets of the majority of the antimitotic agents. There are three major classes of such agents: microtubule stabilizing agents, comprising primarily taxanes and epothilones, tubulin polymerization inhibitors that bind to tubulin at the Vinca alkaloid site and tubulin polymerization inhibitors that bind to tubulin at the colchicine site. 
 Q. Li and H. L. Sham, “Discovery and development of antimitotic agents that inhibit tubulin polymerisation for the treatment of cancer,” Expert Opin. Ther. Pat., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1663–1702, 2002, doi: 10.1517/135437126.96.36.1993.
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