Chemokine receptors – one of the key targets implicated in inflammation diseases, cancer pathology and viral infections. Chemokines are a family of small proteins inducing directed cell migration via specific chemokine receptors, which play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Therapeutic strategies based on modulation of chemokine receptor pathways were reported to be promising clinical strategies in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory skin diseases and atopic dermatitis, as well as viral infections, including HIV. Chemokine involvement is not limited to immunity and inflammation. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that chemokines and chemokine receptors are produced by many different cell types, including tumor cells.
Ligand-receptor relationships within the chemokine superfamily are extremely complex. The receptors have been operationally subdivided according to the complexity of their relationships to ligands into various groups. Chemokine receptors, like all members of the GPCR superfamily, mediate signal transduction through specific G-proteins. Although chemokine receptors are morphologically similar to many other 7-TMS receptors, they have several unique structural signatures such as the amino acid sequence DRYLAIV in the second intracellular loop domain.
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