Kinases mediate the transfer of a phosphate moiety from a high energy molecule (such as ATP) to their substrate molecule. Kinases are needed to stabilize this reaction because the phosphoanhydride bond contains a high level of energy. Kinases properly orient their substrate and the phosphoryl group within their active sites, which increases the rate of the reaction. Additionally, they commonly use positively charged amino acid residues, which electrostatically stabilize the transition state by interacting with the negatively charged phosphate groups. Alternatively, some kinases utilize bound metal cofactors in their active sites to coordinate the phosphate groups. Protein kinases can be classed as catalytically active (canonical) or as pseudokinases, reflecting the evolutionary loss of one or more of the catalytic amino acids that position or hydrolyse ATP.